History of sword used in Golden Horseshoe ceremony a mystery
This morning, State Schools Superintendent Steve Paine will dub more than 200 West Virginia eighth-graders "knights and ladies of the Golden Horseshoe" for their knowledge of state history.
But there's one question none of these adolescent history aces, or anybody else for that matter, can answer: Where did the silver sword, used for decades to knight students, come from?
There's only one thing officials know for certain about this antique weapon.
"The sword is really old, I can tell you that," said Regina Scotchie, the state Department of Education's social studies coordinator.
"All the history that we have on where the sword came from is hearsay," she said.
Scotchie said she heard a men's club donated the piece years ago and that the current sword is the second in the Golden Horseshoe's history, but has no proof that would substantiate either rumor.
The sword's ornate scabbard features several images of the Crusades and an engraving that reads, "Be thou faithful unto death and I will give thee a crown of life." There's also a large, fanciful engraving that says "Howard S. Chenoweth" in an Old English font.
The pommel on the end of the sword is shaped like a knight's helmet. The weapon's cross-guard, which separates the blade from the grip, displays a sword and crown emblem.
The sword's ivory grip features an "HC" engraving on one side - presumably for "Howard Chenoweth" - and a cross passing through a triangle on the other side.
The blade is stamped with a logo, "The M.C. Lilley & Company, Columbus, Ohio." It also features several more Crusader scenes and an engraving that reads "memento mori" -"remember that you must die" in Latin - with a skull and crossbones.
Ron Ruble, owner of an online antique weapon shop (www.ruble-enterprises.com), said those markings indicate the sword once belonged to a Mason.
He said a sword was a standard-issued weapon until after the Civil War. Even a company's musicians carried swords.
But following the war, Ruble said government officials realized a soldier's sword was a "worthless piece of crap," seldom used and extremely outdated in an age of long-range weapons like cannons and guns.
So the military stopped ordering as many swords for soldiers and started using the pieces for ceremonial purposes only. Ruble said the drop in sales put sword companies in difficult financial straits, forcing them to adapt their business strategies.
Because most men alive at the time were either Civil War, Mexican-American War or Indian War veterans, members of fraternal organizations like the Masons, the Grand Army of the Republic and the Independent Order of Oddfellows started wearing ornamental swords to the groups' ceremonies.
"Since they were so used to carrying swords in the military, it was a natural thing," Ruble said.
Sword manufacturers realized this business opportunity and started making personalized weapons for members. Ruble said this tradition lasted up until the 1920s and 1930s, when a new group of members came along that weren't so "sword-oriented."
"They made literally thousands of different ones," he said. "They're all over the place if you really start looking around."
Ruble said West Virginia's Golden Horseshoe sword is a replica of an 1840 model militia blade and Howard Chenoweth was probably the weapon's original owner.
He said the manufacturer's logo indicates the blade was manufactured between 1882 and 1925, making it 85- to 128-years-old.
Scotchie said the weapon's age might negate the rumor of an earlier Golden Horseshoe sword, but questions remain.
Who, for instance, is Howard S. Chenoweth?
Joe Geiger, director of the state archives, provided the Daily Mail with a death certificate for a Howard Scott Chenoweth, an Elkins native who died in Huntington in December 1943 from a diabetic coma.
A 1944 obituary from the Elkins Inter-Mountain newspaper reveals that Chenoweth, 60 when he died, was a member and former master of Elkins' Masonic lodge. According to Ruble's timeline, it's likely this Chenoweth would have owned a ceremonial sword.
It's still unclear, however, how the sword made it to the state superintendent's office.
Social Security death records indicate that Chenoweth's wife, Helen, and children, Robert Neil and Mary Virginia, are all deceased, and further research didn't turn up any additional heirs.
Chenoweth has no apparent connections to the state Department of Education, and members of Elkins Lodge 108 say they don't know anything about the sword or Chenoweth.
The case of the Golden Horseshoe sword may have grown cold, but no matter its origins, it's still part of a memory thousands of "knights" and "ladies" share, and it's an artifact of the West Virginia history it represents.
As another group of amateur historians prepared today to have their shoulders tapped by its silver blade, Scotchie said she would like them to remember one thing: Don't get nervous.
"I always say 'Guys, we could not cut soft butter with this sword,'" she said.
"He hasn't cut an ear off yet."
Contact writer Zack Harold at 304-348-7939 or firstname.lastname@example.org.