One of those arrested, Jacksonville lawyer Kelly Mathis, was identified by authorities as the mastermind of the scheme. He allegedly made about $6 million from the operation.
A woman who answered the phone at Mathis' law firm said no one was available to talk about his arrest.
From 2007 to early 2012, investigators said, they found evidence of nearly $6 million in what appear to be charitable donations by Allied Veterans. That was only about 2 percent of the more than $290 million made from gambling during that period, they said.
Most of the money went to for-profit companies and the operators of Allied Veterans, authorities said.
To play games at one of the Internet cafes, a customer gets a prepaid card and then goes to a computer. The games, with spinning wheels similar to slot machines, have names such as "Captain Cash," "Lucky Shamrocks" and "Money Bunny." Winners go back to a cashier with their cards and cash out.
Each of the locations had rows of computers and a big sign that read: "This is not a gaming establishment." On the walls were photos of company executives making donations and letters of recognition from some of the charities that supposedly benefited.
In Anadarko, Okla., the owner of International Internet Technologies, a company accused of supplying the cafes with software, was arrested along with his wife. Chase Egan Burns, 37, and Kristin Burns, 38, face charges including racketeering and conspiracy.
International Internet Technologies made $63 million from the Florida operation from 2007 to 2010, according to the IRS.
"What we do is legal," Chase Burns told The Oklahoman on Monday.
Carroll served 20 years in the Navy, working as a jet mechanic before retiring as a lieutenant commander. She was elected Florida's first black lieutenant governor in 2010, winning office as Scott's running mate. She is also a former executive director of the Florida Department of Veterans' Affairs.
A married mother of three, Carroll has a son who plays for the Miami Dolphins.
Carroll became embroiled in a short-lived scandal last year when a fired staffer claimed that she walked in on Carroll and a female aide in a compromising position. Carroll denied that.
She became the brunt of late-night talk show hosts after she told a TV station that black women who look like her "don't engage in relationships like that." She later apologized for any implication that black lesbians are unattractive.